In Pretoria, representatives of Great Britain and the Boer states sign the Treaty of Vereeniging, officially ending the three-and-a-half-year South African Boer War. The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa.
|Date||20 December 1880 – 23 March 1881 (3 months and 3 days)|
|Location||South African Republic|
|Result||Boer victory Pretoria Convention British recognition of the South African Republic, subject to British suzerainty|
October 11, 1899 – May 31, 1902
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Peace of Vereeniging, (May 31, 1902), treaty that ended the South African War (q.v.), or Boer War; it was signed in Pretoria, after initial Boer approval in Vereeniging, between representatives of the British and ex-republican Boer governments.
In 1902, the Boers were defeated and the British took control of the former Boer lands as well as the diamonds and gold in these lands. The Formation of the Union of South Africa By 1910, the British decided to create the independent Union of South Africa which included the Cape Colony and the Boer republics.
The war began on October 11 1899, following a Boer ultimatum that the British should cease building up their forces in the region. The Boers had refused to grant political rights to non-Boer settlers, known as Uitlanders, most of whom were British, or to grant civil rights to Africans.
A number of interrelated factors led to the Second Anglo-Boer War. These include the conflicting political ideologies of imperialism and republicanism, the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand, tension between political leaders, the Jameson Raid and the Uitlander franchise.
There were many reasons why the Boers left the Cape Colony; among the initial reasons were the language laws. The British had proclaimed the English language as the only language of the Cape Colony and prohibited the use of the Dutch language. … This caused further dissatisfaction among the Dutch settlers.
What effect did the Boer War have on Africans? The Boer War caused 14,000 African deaths, and also changed the political, social, and economic aspects of their lives. What are the forms of imperial rule? The forms of imperial rule were colony, sphere of rule, protectorate, and economic imperialism.
While Boer tactics emphasized long-range fighting, storm-troop tactics relied on close combat. Both Boer tactics and storm-troop tactics depended on the same human factors–soldiers capable of fighting as individuals, and officers wise enough to let their men loose on the battlefield.
Over 46,000 civilians died, including 26000 Boers in concentration camps and over 20,000 Africans of the 115,000 interned in separate concentration camps. The conflict ended after 2 years, 7 months, 2 weeks and 6 days with a British victory.
Blacks were also used to stand in on farms of Boers who were commandeered to the war. … Although there is no accurate figure, some sources say that at least 10 000 Black men accompanied the Boer Commandos and, as a rule, labour conscripted by the Boers received no pay.
The Boers are the descendants of the first Dutch settlers in South Africa. They call themselves “Africa’s only white tribe.” Apartheid was the codification 50 years ago of their determination to treat black people as inferior and separate.
31 May 1902
The Boer forces finally surrendered on Saturday, 31 May 1902, with 54 of the 60 delegates from the Transvaal and Orange Free State voting to accept the terms of the peace treaty.
By 1902, the British had crushed the Boer resistance, and on May 31 of that year, the Peace of Vereeniging was signed, ending hostilities. The treaty recognized the British military administration over Transvaal and the Orange Free State, and authorized a general amnesty for Boer forces.
|Conflict||Rand Rebellion (1921–1922)|
|South Africa and allies||South Africa|
|Results||Government victory Rebellion suppressed|
|Prime Minister (1912–94) President (1994–)||Jan Smuts|
There were 20 million deaths and 21 million wounded. The total number of deaths includes 9.7 million military personnel and about 10 million civilians. The Entente Powers (also known as the Allies) lost about 5.7 million soldiers while the Central Powers lost about 4 million.
As a result of the Trek, the Afrikaners remained politically divided for many years. Furthermore, the Trek resulted in the cultural and economic isolation of the Boers. The Great Trek increased the conflicts between the Boers and indigenous tribes, but, on the other hand stimulated trade between black and white groups.
Definition of Afrikaner
: a South African of European descent whose native language is Afrikaans.
The South African Boer War begins between the British Empire and the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State. … By mid June 1900, British forces had captured most major Boer cities and formally annexed their territories, but the Boers launched a guerrilla war that frustrated the British occupiers.
Thousands of Irish men served in the Boer War, including an Irish Brigade, led by Major-General Fitzroy Hart, which included the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, Connaught Rangers and Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. … Four battalions of Irish soldiers rode to battle on horseback, but then dismounted to fight like regular infantry.
The second Boer War had a major impact on British tactics leading up to World War One. The war had shown that modern rifles and artillery provided greater accuracy, range and rates of fire than before. This led to the belief in a fire zone of increased depth and danger, and the need for formations that were more open.
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