In neuroanatomy, a sulcus (Latin: “furrow”, pl. sulci) is a depression or groove in the cerebral cortex. It surrounds a gyrus (pl. gyri), creating the characteristic folded appearance of the brain in humans and other mammals. The larger sulci are usually called fissures.
Figure 2. The five sulci and adjoining gyri selected for investigation. Top: (A) Superior frontal sulcus, (B) Central sulcus, (C) Lateral sulcus, (D) Superior temporal sulcus, and (E) Intra-parietal sulcus.
The terms fissure and sulcus as they are classically de- fined are: a fissure separates one lobe from another, while a sulcus is within a lobe and delimits gyri. The fissures and sulci of the cerebral hemispheres can be arranged into three groups according to their location.
Damage above the Sylvian fissure, in the parietal and frontal lobes, tended to cause speech production deficits; damage below the Sylvian fissure, in the temporal lobe, tended to cause speech recognition deficits.
: furrow, groove especially : a shallow furrow on the surface of the brain separating adjacent convolutions.
Cerebral atrophy is life threatening, and there is no known cure. Treatment for cerebral atrophy focuses on treating the symptoms and complications of the disease. In cases in which cerebral atrophy is due to an infection, treatment of the infection may stop the symptoms of atrophy from worsening.
Sulcal effacement is a local secondary sign of mass effect in the cranium. Any lesion exerting mass effect on brain parenchyma can push adjacent gyri together, thereby displacing the CSF from the sulci.
Cortical sulci are convoluted regions between cortical folds deeply embedded in the surface of the brain. … Deep fissures in the brain, sulci separate functionally distinct regions. They are complex 3D surface boundaries that partition the brain’s anatomy.
Ventricular enlargement and sulcal widening were defined as an increase in ventricular size or sulcal size of 3 of 10 grades between baseline and follow-up.
Shallow grooves called the interventricular sulci, containing blood vessels, mark the separation between ventricles on the front and back surfaces of the heart. There are two grooves on the external surface of the heart.
The cerebral cortex has sulci (small grooves), fissures (larger grooves) and bulges between the grooves called gyri. Scientists have specific names for the bulges and grooves on the surface of the brain.
The deep furrows are called fissures and shallow ones are called sulci (singluar; sulcus). … Major sulci and fissures divide each hemisphere into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. In the midregion of the lateral cortex is an elongated vertical groove called the. central sulcus.
|Latin||sulcus centralis cerebri|
(1641) the deep cleft (Sylvian fissure) separating the temporal (lower), frontal, and parietal (top rear) lobes of the brain.
The Sylvian Fissure:
It is easy to identify, moving across the brain from the bottom toward the top as following an antero–posterior course. Its start marks the limit between the temporal pole and the frontal lobe, and, after an uninterrupted course, it ends posteriorly with a bifurcation into two sulci.
Sulcus: A groove, furrow, or trench. … In anatomy, there are many sulci; an example is the superior pulmonary sulcus.
noun, plural me·a·tus·es, me·a·tus. Anatomy. an opening or foramen, especially in a bone or bony structure, as the opening of the ear or nose.
|Bone Markings (Table 7.2)|
|Sulcus||Groove||Sigmoid sulcus of the temporal bones|
|Canal||Passage in bone||Auditory canal|
|Fissure||Slit through bone||Auricular fissure|
Life expectancy among patients with brain atrophy can be influenced by the condition that caused the brain shrinkage. People with Alzheimer’s disease live an average of four to eight years after their diagnosis.
The brain’s overall size begins to shrink when you’re in your 30s or 40s, and the rate of shrinkage increases once you reach age 60. Brain shrinkage doesn’t happen to all areas of the brain at once. Some areas shrink more and faster than others, and brain shrinkage is likely to get more severe as you get older.
There is no specific treatment or cure for cerebral atrophy. Some symptoms of underlying causes can be managed and treated. Controlling blood pressure and eating a healthy, balanced diet is advised. Some research suggests that physical exercise may slow the speed of atrophy.
Efface is a term frequently used by radiologists, most often in the context of CSF-containing spaces in the brain (sulci and ventricles). Unfortunately, it is often used incorrectly. The word efface, in general English usage, means to cause something to fade or disappear 1,2.
As the intracranial volume cannot change, any intracranial lesion which is ‘space-occupying’ may increase intracranial pressure and displace the soft tissues of the brain. This is known as ‘mass effect’. Intracranial pathological processes, such as masses and haemorrhage, can cause mass effect.
Mass effect can occur following traumatic brain injury, hemorrhagic cerebral stroke, subarachnoid cerebral aneurysm, non-traumatic cerebral aneurysm, and in the context of ruptured arterio–venous malformation.
Some degree of atrophy and subsequent brain shrinkage is common with old age, even in people who are cognitively healthy. However, this atrophy is accelerated in people with mild cognitive impairment and even faster in those who ultimately progress from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease.
what is a sulcus
sulci and gyri
gyri and sulci function
fissures of the brain