Hazardous Air Pollutants
Other examples are dioxins, asbestos, toluene, and metals such as cadmium, mercury, chromium, and lead compounds.
Ultrafine Particles (UFPs)
UFPs are the most dangerous particulate matter because their tiny size makes them extremely inhalable.
Hazardous air pollutants, also known as toxic air pollutants or air toxics, are those pollutants that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental effects.
Hazardous Air Pollutants were defined in the Clean Air Act as “any air pollutant listed [in 42 U.S.C. 7412 (b)],” which includes specific chemicals (e.g. arsenic), compounds that include chemicals listed (For example, Arsenic compounds would mean Arsenite, etc.), and other notable toxins.
Health problems can include cancer, respiratory irritation, nervous system problems, and birth defects. Some health problems occur very soon after a person inhales a toxic air pollutant. These immediate effects may be minor, such as watery eyes. Or they may be serious, such as life-threatening lung damage.
Where do hazardous air pollutants come from? Most air toxics originate from human-made sources, including mobile sources (e.g., cars, trucks, buses) and stationary sources (e.g., factories, refineries, power plants), as well as indoor sources (e.g., some building materials and cleaning solvents).
The six Air Pollutants are: Particulate Matter (PM); Carbon Monoxide (CO); Nitrogen Oxides (NOx); Sulfur Dioxide (SO2); Ozone (O3); and Lead (Pb). There are also Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) that cause or may cause cancer, other serious health effects, or adverse environmental and ecological effects.
The impact of NOX to humans and environment
Nitric oxide (NO) is not considered to be hazardous to health at typical ambient conditions.
These six pollutants are carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, particle pollution (often referred to as particulate matter), and sulfur oxides.
The top 10, in alphabetical order, are: artisanal gold mining; contaminated surface water; contaminated groundwater; indoor air pollution; metals smelting and processing; industrial mining; radioactive waste and uranium mining; untreated sewage; urban air quality; and used lead–acid battery recycling.
The two types of air pollutants are primary pollutants, which enter the atmosphere directly, and secondary pollutants, which form from a chemical reaction.
Long-term exposure to polluted air can have permanent health effects such as: Accelerated aging of the lungs. Loss of lung capacity and decreased lung function. Development of diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and possibly cancer.
Think of the AQI as a yardstick that runs from 0 to 500. … AQI values at or below 100 are generally thought of as satisfactory. When AQI values are above 100, air quality is considered to be unhealthy—at first for certain sensitive groups of people, then for everyone as AQI values increase.
Methane is not considered an air toxic, as it is not on the California Toxic Air Contaminants list4, nor the California Proposition 65 list5, nor is it on the U.S. EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants list6.
Exhale slowly through your mouth while pursing your lips (like whistling). This reduces the tendency for airways to collapse. While exhaling, tighten your abdominal muscles. This moves the diaphragm up and helps to get all the stale air out.
Although ammonia is now recognized as a potentially hazardous air pollutant, only some countries have taken further action to reduce their emission. Reduction strategies predominantly focus on controlling agricultural practices.
A VOC or Volatile Organic Chemical, is a compound that contains carbon and reacts with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight to form ozone. A HAP or Hazardous Air Pollutant, are air pollutants that are known to cause cancer and other serious health impacts.
The EPA regulates n-hexane under the Clean Air Act (CAA) and has designated n-hexane as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) (U.S. Congress 1990; EPA 1994b, 1994c). n-Hexane is included on the list of organic HAPS from the synthetic organic chemicals manufacturing industry (SOCMI) (EPA 1994b).
NO2 can cause irritation of eyes, nose and throat and when inhaled might cause lung irritations and decreased lung function. In areas with higher levels of nitrogen dioxide, a greater chance of asthma attacks and an increase in hospital stays because of respiratory complaints are observed.
Some of these VOCs are known as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These include some or all of the following: acetaldehyde, acrolein, ethanol, formaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid and lactic acid.
The five primary air pollutants include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compounds. The sources for all five of these pollutants include electricity production, industry, and transportation.
A primary pollutant is an air pollutant emitted directly from a source. A secondary pollutant is not directly emitted as such, but forms when other pollutants (primary pollutants) react in the atmosphere.
These six pollutants (carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter of different size fractions, and sulfur dioxide) are common in outdoor air and can harm human health and the environment.
hazardous air pollutants pdf
asbestos lead and mercury are examples of air pollutants known as
criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants
major source of hazardous air pollutants
hazardous air pollutants environmental effects
hazardous air pollutants (haps)
list 7 air toxics suspected to cause serious health problems
air toxics examples