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The relationship between PSI and feet of head is that **2.31 feet of head = 1 PSI**. Translated, that means that a column of water that’s 1-inch square and 2.31 feet tall will weigh 1 pound. Or, one-foot column of water that’s 1-inch square weighs . 433 pounds.Dec 23, 2020

Corresponding to Head of Water in Feet

per cubic foot; 1 foot head = **0.433 lbs**.

Elevation can change your pressure both positively or negatively. To push water uphill it will require pressure and if water goes downhill then you will gain pressure. An easy calculation to know is that for **every 10 feet of rise you lose -4.33 psi**. For every 10 feet of fall in elevation, you will gain +4.33 psi.

Depth and hydrostatic pressure.

Height of Water Column | Pressure | |
---|---|---|

(m) | (ft) | (psi) |

9 | 29.5 | 12.8 |

10 | 32.8 | 14.2 |

12 |
39.4 |
17.1 |

The human body can withstand **50 psi** (pounds per square inch) and that’s if it’s a sudden impact. However if it’s sustained pressure, the body can withstand up to 400 psi if the weight is gradually increased. Because the human skull is in an arch form, it can withstand large amounts of pressure.

EXAMPLE (Imperial)

Depth (meters/feet) | Fresh Water (1000 kg/m3) | Sea Water (1030 kg/m3) |
---|---|---|

91.5 meters (300 feet) Gato | 1 MPa 144.8 PSI |
1 MPa 148.7 PSI |

122 meters (400 feet) Balao/Tench | 1.3 MPa 188.1 PSI | 1.3 MPa 193.3 PSI |

152.5 meters (500 feet) | 1.6 MPa 231.5 PSI | 1.6 MPa 238 PSI |

183 meters (600 feet) | 1.9 MPa 274.8 PSI | 1.9 MPa 282.6 PSI |

Most pumps are rated at a flow for a given pressure and that’s why a **7 psi** pump is needed to 15 feet of water.

Calculate the static head loss based on 100 feet of elevation. The conversion factor for water at normal ambient conditions of 60 degrees Fahrenheit is **2.31 feet of elevation per pound-per-square-inch water pressure**. Dividing the 100 feet of elevation by 2.31 feet per psi yields a head loss of 43.29 psi.

In fact, it weighs 62.4 pounds per cubic foot. This mass requires a pressure of 0.433 psi to lift water one foot (62.4 lbs/144 in in ft). To put it another way, one psi will lift water 2.31 feet (1/0.433). In a single story building with **70 psi** in the street, this can be insignificant.

433 4.33 pounds per square inch

Ten feet of water would exert a pressure of **10 X .** **433 4.33 pounds per square inch**. The same relation of height to pressure holds true, no matter what the area of vertical liquid column.
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## What is the water pressure at 33 feet?

Each 10 metres (33 feet) of depth puts another atmosphere (1 bar, 14.7 psi, 101 kPa) of pressure on the hull, so at 300 metres (1,000 feet), the hull is withstanding thirty atmospheres (30 bar, **441 psi**, 3,000 kPa) of water pressure.

The relationship between PSI and feet of head is that **2.31 feet of head = 1 PSI**. Translated, that means that a column of water that’s 1-inch square and 2.31 feet tall will weigh 1 pound.

Water Tower Example.

If the top of a full water tank is 100 feet above the ground, the 100 ft. of water causes 100 ft. x 0.433 psi per ft. of column or **43.3 psi pressure at ground** level.

You can calculate the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid in a tank as the force per area for the area of the bottom of the tank as given by **pressure = force/area units**. In this case, the force would be the weight the liquid exerts on the bottom of the tank due to gravity.

**Divide the depth in inches by 27.71-inches/psi**, or the depth in feet by 2.31-feet/psi which are the English unit conversion factors. The result is the water head pressure expressed in psi.

The force needed to break a human femur is **about 1700 PSI** or over 1 million kilograms per square meter (according to emedicine http://emedicine.medscape.com) which agrees with numerous other sources around the internet.

Human beings can withstand 3 to 4 atmospheres of pressure, or **43.5 to 58 psi**. Water weighs 64 pounds per cubic foot, or one atmosphere per 33 feet of depth, and presses in from all sides.

32.00″

According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the highest barometric pressure ever recorded was 32.00″ set in Siberia, Russia on December 31, 1968. That’s like being 2,000 feet under the sea. The Upper Midwest pressure on Thursday will be the same as if you were 1,000 below the sea!Feb 19, 2020

One atmosphere is equal to the weight of the earth’s atmosphere at sea level, about 14.6 pounds per square inch. If you are at sea level, each square inch of your surface is subjected to a force of 14.6 pounds. The pressure increases about one atmosphere for **every 10 meters of water depth**.

The pressure in atmospheres at this depth is **1097 atm**.

Example – Air pressure at Elevation 10000 m

Altitude Above Sea Level | Absolute Atmospheric Pressure | |
---|---|---|

feet | metre | psia |

2000 | 610 | 13.7 |

2500 | 762 | 13.4 |

3000 | 914 | 13.2 |

Number of submersible well pump stages determine pump lift capacity

Table of Submersible Pump Stages vs HP vs Total Dynamic Head vs. GPM Flow Rate Capacity | ||
---|---|---|

Water Pump HP | Nr. of Pump Stages | GPM Flow Rate Capacity |

1 HP | 8 | 4 – 40 GPM (varies by TDH) |

1 1/2 HP | 11 | 4 – 40 GPM (varies by TDH) |

2 HP | 14 | 4 – 42 GPM (varies by TDH) |

Example – Horsepower Required to Pump Water

Power Required to Pump Water (hp) | ||
---|---|---|

Volume Flow (gpm) | Height (ft) | |

45 | 0.0568 | 0.341 |

50 | 0.0631 | 0.379 |

60 | 0.0758 | 0.455 |

Assuming we are talking about fluids and pipes, **yes it’s the same**. The head loss (or the pressure loss) represents the reduction in the total head or pressure (sum of elevation head, velocity head and pressure head) of the fluid as it flows through a hydraulic system.

Pipe diameter is also an extremely important factor when calculating head pressure. As a general rule of thumb, **using a smaller diameter pipe than the return pump output will drastically increase head pressure**. For minimum head pressure, using the largest diameter pipe possible is best.

We know that the **head loss must be positive** so we can assume a flow direction and compute the head loss. If the head loss is negative, we have assumed the incorrect direction.

On the average the height per floor is about 10 feet, for 105 floor building will be equivalent to about 1050 feet. For water to reach that height will require certain amount of pressure at 2.31 PSI/ft. will equate to about **2500 PSI**..

Normal psi for a home pipe system is **between 30 and 80 psi**. While you don’t want the psi to be too low, it violates code to be above 80. Instead, you should aim for a psi that’s between 60 and 70.

Head pressure is a specific type of pressure used in pump systems. It is **a measurement of the height difference between the fluid being moved and the discharge point**. For example, let’s say you have a well of water that is 2 metres underground, and you have a tap and pipe system half a metre above ground.

29.4 pounds per square inch

It only takes a 1 inch column of sea water 33 feet tall to weigh 14.7 pounds. This means that at a depth of 33 feet deep in the ocean, there is a total pressure of **29.4 pounds per square inch** (psi).
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**P = F/A = pgh**

Where F is weight of the liquid in the container, p is liquid density, g is gravity. Note that this equation can also be derived from the Bernoulli’s Equation. Also note that that pressures of the fluid at different depths are different does not go against Pascal’s principle.

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