how does the smooth mountain rock surface type affect the amount of runoff

How Does The Smooth Mountain Rock Surface Type Affect The Amount Of Runoff?

The smooth mountain rock surface affects the runoff amount by sliding down the rocks and only absorbing when it can to be absorbed. Bare soil affects the amount of runoff by how it absorbs water in the valley part of the hills. This is also the cause of more puddles and flooding, due tonot having anything to absorb.

How does the smooth mountain rock surface affect the amount of runoff?

There are small fractures on the surface of mountain rocks and they only absorb a small amount of water. So the surface of a smooth mountain rock will have a higher runoff rate.

How does the bare soil surface type affect the amount of runoff?

Water commonly runs off areas that were compacted through repeated passage of people, large animals, or heavy machinery. Raindrops falling on bare soil also can compact the soil surface in plowed fields, leading to increased runoff and erosion of farmland.

How do pavement and smooth rock runoff affect waterways?

Urbanization increases surface runoff, by creating more impervious surfaces such as pavement and buildings do not allow percolation of the water down through the soil to the aquifer. It is instead forced directly into streams, where erosion and siltation can be major problems, even when flooding is not.

What physical characteristics affect run off?

Meteorological factors affecting runoff:

Type of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, etc.) Rainfall intensity. Rainfall amount. Rainfall duration.

How does sediment loss affect land and soil quality?

When excess soil drops out of the water and remains in the stream, the process is known as sedimentation. Erosion and sedimentation can also have these affects: Loss of fertile top soil. Flooding from clogged ditches, culverts, and storm sewers.

How does vegetation slow prevent sediment loss?

How does vegetation help slow erosion? Plant roots hold sediment in place, helping to stabilize the areas where they are planted. By absorbing water, plants reduce erosion caused by runoff.

How does slope affect surface runoff?

Slopes, Soils and Runoff

In general, the steeper and longer a slope is, the faster water runs off of it, and the greater potential there is for erosion.

What factors affect surface runoff?

Meteorological factors affecting runoff:
  • Type of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, etc.)
  • Rainfall intensity.
  • Rainfall amount.
  • Rainfall duration.
  • Distribution of rainfall over the drainage basin.
  • Direction of storm movement.
  • Precipitation that occurred earlier and resulting soil moisture.

How does the vegetation surface type affect the amount of run off?

Vegetation can intercept precipitation and reduce runoff. Leaves and stems can capture rain and prevent it from reaching the ground. … Dense vegetation with proteoid roots (hairy roots with a large surface area) can absorb large volumes of water even in storm conditions, which will prevent runoff.

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How does heavy sediment deposits affect waterways?

Sediment deposits in rivers can alter the flow of water and reduce water depth, which makes navigation and recreational use more difficult. soil particles that settle at the bottom of a body of water.

How does vegetation allow greater infiltration?

Vegetation contains roots that extend into the soil which create cracks and fissures in the soil, allowing for more rapid infiltration and increased capacity. Vegetation can also reduce surface compaction of the soil which again allows for increased infiltration.

How does topography affect runoff?

Steep slopes have high runoff water velocity. This increases its erosive energy (remember that erosive energy of runoff is a function of runoff velocity and volume). When the slope is longer (length), surface area for water collection also increases and therefore increases the run-off volume.

What effect does slope have on if Earth’s surface will infiltrate or become runoff?

Water that, in natural conditions, infiltrated directly into soil now runs off into streams. Slope of the land: Water falling on steeply-sloped land runs off more quickly and infiltrates less than water falling on flat land.

What causes runoff?

Runoff occurs when there is more water than land can absorb. The excess liquid flows across the surface of the land and into nearby creeks, streams, or ponds. … Glaciers, snow, and rain all contribute to this natural runoff. Runoff also occurs naturally as soil is eroded and carried to various bodies of water.

how does the smooth mountain rock surface type affect the amount of runoff
how does the smooth mountain rock surface type affect the amount of runoff

How does soil type affect erosion?

Soils containing a large amount of silt-sized particles are most susceptible to erosion from moving water whereas soils consisting of clay or sand-sized particles are less susceptible to erosion from moving water.

How does the type of terrain in a watershed affect flooding or erosion?

The height and steepness of the hills, floodplains and channels contribute to the erosive power of the water in a watershed and its stream channels. … The faster water flows the more energy or power it has to erode and move soil, sand, gravel, boulders and debris. Topography. Topography also affects sinuosity of streams.

How do soil erosion negatively affects landforms?

As water and wind pass across land, they take away grains of soil and wear down rock. Years of this process reduces the size of hills and mountains, and it cuts through ground to create valleys, canyons and ditches.

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How does vegetation affect sediment loss?

Vegetation has a tremendous influence of preventing sediment loss by holding the soil together and dampening effects of weather.

How can sediments affect the health of ecosystems in a watershed?

Sediment pollution can have long-term impacts on aquatic insects, fish and other wildlife in affected waterways. It clouds water so animals cannot see food sources. … It settles on the stream bottom and impacts habitat for important aquatic insects– which are a crucial food source in healthy trout streams.

How does vegetation slow and prevent?

Vegetation cover- Plants slow down water as it flows over the land and this allows much of the rain to soak into the ground. Plant roots hold the soil in position and prevent it from being blown or washed away. Plants break the impact of a raindrop before it hits the soil, reducing the soil’s ability to erode.

Does runoff increases as slope increases?

Results show that runoff increased as slope gradient (ranging from 2.45 to 6.43 mm) reaching the critical point of 25% for slope, then runoff decreased with an increasing slope gradient from 25% to 40%.

How does slope affect erosion?

As the slope increases, the type of erosion changes, chiselling the ground into different shapes and thereby increasing the surface area – and hence the number of pores that can absorb water, at least in the initial phase.

How does the slope gradient affect the amount of erosion that occurs?

[47] revealed that soil erosion increases when there is an increase in the runoff velocity, but after passing the threshold (the critical slope gradient), the soil erosion starts to decrease as the slope gradient increases. …

How does the amount of runoff affect the amount of erosion?

As storm water runoff water moves down a slope, it increases in velocity and increases the potential for erosion. The volume of sediment also increases because the transported particles scour and dislodge more soil particles. Rill erosion is another form of overland erosion.

What are the main factors affecting runoff in a watershed?

Watershed factors affecting runoff are land slope, shape, soil, and land use. The principal effect of land slope is on the rate of runoff. Runoff will flow faster on a steeper slope.

How does slope affect infiltration?

the slope to generate less ponding on the sloping soil surface. This, therefore, affects infiltration rate and surface runoff proportion of water from any kind of rainfall distribution and the tendency of the surface runoff to be higher usually leads to a higher erosion rate on the slope.

How does vegetation reduce runoff?

Trees and forests reduce stormwater runoff by capturing and storing rainfall in the canopy and releasing water into the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. In addition, tree roots and leaf litter create soil conditions that promote the infiltration of rainwater into the soil.

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Why vegetation cover affects the amount of runoff following a storm?

Trees and other vegetation in urban areas considerably reduce urban-water runoff. As rain falls upon vegetation, it clings to the rough surfaces of leaves, branches, and trunks. … By intercepting and slowing precipitation hitting the ground, vegetation substantially reduces the volume and rate of stormwater runoff.

How do sediments affect water supply?

Sediment, as a physical pollutant, impacts receiving waters in the following principal ways: High levels of turbidity limit penetration of sunlight into the water column, thereby limiting or prohibiting growth of algae and rooted aquatic plants.

How does sedimentation affect the ocean?

The environmental impacts of sedimentation include the following: loss of important or sensitive aquatic habitat, decrease in fishery resources, loss of recreation attributes, loss of coral reef communities, human health concerns, changes in fish migration, increases in erosion, loss of wetlands, nutrient balance …

How does sediment affect fish?

Sediment particles absorb warmth from the sun and thus increase water temperature. This can stress some species of fish. Settling sediment can bury and suffocate fish eggs and bury the gravel nests they rest in. … This affects the food source of fish, and can result in smaller and fewer fish.

How does infiltration work in the water cycle?

Infiltration happens when water soaks into the soil from the ground level. It moves underground and moves between the soil and rocks. Some of the water will be soaked up by roots to help plants grow. The plant’s leaves eventually release the water into the air through the plant’s pours as waste.

The Water Cycle: Infiltration vs Runoff

Factors that affect the rate of weathering

Treading lightly: how geoscience is revealing the human impacts in Antarctica

Hydrology and Water Resources: Understanding Runoff, it’s components by Mr. Milind Khamgaonkar

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