(i) Describe how the geology in a watershed affects the groundwater recharge. geologic formations with high permeability allow water to move through the rock quickly, so groundwater recharge occurs more quickly.
Geologic formations with a high permeability can be the best aquifers. For water to move through an aquifer, the internal voids and fractures must be connected. … Recharge of groundwater occurs from precipitation that infiltrates soils or that seeps from the bottom of surface water bodies such as lakes and streams.
Geology affects where and how water moves in a watershed. … These openings act as direct routes to funnel water very quickly to the water table. These routes not only affect quantity of water in streams and groundwater, but can allow pollutants from the land surface to quickly contaminate the groundwater system.
When groundwater discharges into surface water, they flow together. Streams and rivers flow down the valley of the watershed until they join larger rivers and, eventually, reach the ocean. … Recharge through wetland soils occurs very slowly and introduces only minor amounts of surface water into the groundwater system.)
Groundwater recharge by natural or artificial means can cause changes in groundwater quality. These changes will depend on many factors, including the chemistry of the source water, land use, soil and sediment characteristics, the groundwater flow dynamics.
As water moves through geologic materials, it dissolves them. The processes of rock weathering on the Earth’s surface are strongly influenced by climatic factors such as temperature and the quantity and distribution of precipitation. … Natural water can vary greatly in the dissolved materials that it carries.
Watersheds directly affect water quality, whether it’s for drinking or recreation. For example, algae blooms from fertilizer runoff draining into water harm watershed health, as do mercury and lead seeping into the water supply due to pollution. … The polluted water supply that results can become harmful to humans.
The effects of geology on water chemistry is highly depend on the composion of the rock units, texture, discontinuty and the age of the rocks. When groundwater interacts with rock units, it may cause rise of rate of chemical rection which leads decomposion of rocks and leaching of minerals due to the water solution.
A watershed includes the network of streams that drains that surface land area, and the groundwater and aquifers located underground that contribute water to those streams. … Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes and can be broken down into subwatersheds (or subbasins).
The boundaries of a surface watershed and groundwater recharge area can, but do not always, coincide. … Lakes that appear to have no major inlet are often fed by groundwater. Sometimes humans withdraw too much water from an aquifer, resulting in serious problems.
Water movement through a watershed: Within all watersheds, small streams (1) join together to form larger streams (2) and larger streams join together to form rivers (3). Rivers eventually empty into the ocean (4) where the water may stay for some time or evaporate and form precipitation.
Steep slopes generally reduce recharge as runoff flows very rapidly and would not permit infiltration. Plains, however, enhance groundwater recharge because higher retention time is provided for rainwater to infiltrate the soils.
Urbanization and land-use change significantly increase the surface water flow to rivers and its travel time becomes shorter. Consequently, groundwater recharge to shallow unconfined aquifers decreases by the same amount.
Vegetation largely determines the amount of net rainfall, and may also influence infiltration, percolation and deep drainage, and the available storage capacity of systems. All these factors combine to determine potential recharge.
Water that infiltrates through porous soils recharges groundwater aquifers and helps to sustain the base flow in streams. Unless properly managed, a high infiltration rate can lead to leaching of nitrate nitrogen or pesticides and loss of phosphorus from soils that have a high level of phosphorus.
Groundwater also acts like a cementing agent, helping sedimentary rocks form. As it moves, it carries sediments along with it, and then over millions of years, the water glues those sediments together into rocks.
Once the water has joined the aquifer, it doesn’t stop there. The groundwater slowly moves through the spaces and cracks between the soil particles on its journey to lower elevations. This movement of water underground is called groundwater flow.
Groundwater recharge can be defined as water added to the aquifer through the unsaturated zone after infiltration and percolation following any storm rainfall event.
Recharge occurs when water seeps into the ground to replenish underground aquifers. Although some recharge happens incidentally—water flowing into the ground from rivers, unlined canals, or excess irrigation—intentional recharge can restore groundwater levels and store water for later use.
Aquifers may be artificially recharged in two main ways: One way is to spread water over the land in pits, furrows, or ditches, or to erect small dams in stream channels to detain and deflect surface runoff, thereby allowing it to infiltrate to the aquifer; the other way is to construct recharge wells and inject water …
Geologic conditions also control the distribution of structural belts, which influence groundwater flow, recharge and discharge. Both geomorphology and geology determine the volumes of surface runoff and amounts and rates of infiltration, in addition to surface-water and groundwater quality.
The hydrosphere (Earth’s water) is an important agent of geologic change. Water shapes our planet by depositing minerals, aiding lithification, and altering rocks after they are lithified. … To this day government controlled water continues to be an integral part of most modern societies.
Take shorter showers, fix leaks & turn off the water when not in use. Don’t pour toxic household chemicals down the drain; take them to a hazardous waste center. Use hardy plants that require little or no watering, fertilizers or pesticides in your yard. Do not over apply fertilizers.
Healthy watersheds provide many ecosystem services including, but not limited to: nutrient cycling, carbon storage, erosion/sedimentation control, increased biodiversity, soil formation, wildlife movement corridors, water storage, water filtration, flood control, food, timber and recreation, as well as reduced …
No. While aquifers and groundwater reservoirs are most commonly freshwater, they can also be saline (salty).
The geology of an area influences the rate of river erosion. Rivers flowing over hard rock have a slower rate of erosion as the bedrock is more resistant. … Therefore, in areas where there are both hard and soft rocks, river channels are more likely to form along the path of the softer rock.
Geological processes are a controlling factor in climate change and its impacts. Geodiversity and biodiversity interact to shape ecosystems, and these links, in turn, affect ecosystem responses to climate change.
Surface water seeps into the ground and recharges the underlying aquifer—groundwater discharges to the surface and supplies the stream with baseflow. USGS Integrated Watershed Studies assess these exchanges and their effect on surface-water and groundwater quality and quantity.
Describe how water moves in a watershed. Watersheds are where water flows through land, seeping into groundwater, collecting in lakes and streams, and finally the streams then collect into larger rivers which eventually meet the ocean.
surface water can percolate through the ground and recharge through an aquifer, human activity in the recharge zone can limit the amount water that reaches the aquifer ex construction, wells drilled in the recharge zone, human activities can pollute an aquifer. water that is treated to make it safe or able to drink.
The more vegetation there is in a watershed, the more water will be absorbed by the plant roots and ultimately released back into the atmosphere through their leaves.
describe how the geology in a watershed affects the groundwater recharge quizlet
what is groundwater recharge
one characteristic of soil that would allow for the maximum rate of recharge of the aquifer.
what is a watershed
how does geology affect water quality
the lake at point a in the diagram is one of the primary points of recharge for the aquifer
how might the water quality of the stream be affected by changes in the watershed
assuming the maximum rate of recharge is occurring in the aquifer